GARLIC

GARLIC (Heb. שׁוּם, shum), plant mentioned once in the Bible among the vegetables which the Israelites ate in Egypt and for which they longed when wandering in the wilderness (Num 11:5). Garlic (Allium sativum) is a condiment which was extremely popular among the peoples of the East from very early times. Herodotus states that an inscription on the pyramid of the pharaoh Cheops refers to the large sum spent on garlic as food for the men who worked on the pyramids. The ancients attributed to garlic aphrodisiac qualities (Pliny, Historia Naturalis, 20:23), and an enactment ascribed to Ezra decrees that it is to be eaten on Friday evenings since "it promotes love and arouses desire" (TJ, Meg. 4:1, 75a). Because it was their custom to eat garlic, the Jews referred to themselves as "garlic eaters" (Ned. 3:10). The fastidious loathed the smell, and it is related of Judah ha-Nasi that he asked those who had eaten garlic to leave the bet midrash (Sanh. 11a). In this he may have been influenced by the Roman aristocracy's objections to garlic eating, the emperor Marcus Aurelius having criticized Jews for exuding its smell (Ammianus Marcellinus, Res gestae, 22:5). Garlic was regarded as a remedy for intestinal worms (BK 82a), a view also held by Dioscorides (De Materia Medica, 2:181). It belongs to the genus Allium, to which belong also the onion and the leek (ḥaẓir, to be distinguished from its usual sense of grass: fodder ), which are mentioned together with garlic in the Bible (Num. 11:5). Many species of the genus Allium grow wild in Israel, and are picked and eaten by the local population. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Loew, Flora, 2 (1924), 139–49; J. Feliks, Olam ha-Ẓome'aḥ ha-Mikra'i (19682), 172f. ADD BIBLIOGRAPHY: Feliks, Ha-Ẓome'aḥ, 156. (Jehuda Feliks)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Garlic — Gar lic, n. [OE. garlek, AS. g[=a]rle[ a]c; gar spear, lance + le[ a]c leek. See {Gar}, n., and {Leek}.] 1. (Bot.) A plant of the genus {Allium} ({A. sativum} is the cultivated variety), having a bulbous root, a very strong smell, and an acrid,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • garlic — O.E. garleac (Mercian), garlec (W. Saxon) garlic, from gar spear (in reference to the clove), see GAR (Cf. gar) + leac leek (see LEEK (Cf. leek)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • garlic — garlic. См. луки. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • garlic — ► NOUN ▪ the strong smelling pungent tasting bulb of a plant of the onion family, used as a flavouring in cookery. DERIVATIVES garlicky adjective. ORIGIN Old English, from g r «spear» (because the shape of a clove resembles the head of a spear) + …   English terms dictionary

  • garlic — [gär′lik] n. [ME garlek < OE garleac < gar, a spear (see GORE3) + leac, LEEK: from the spearlike leaves] 1. a bulbous herb (Allium sativum) of the lily family 2. the strong smelling bulb of this plant, made up of small sections called… …   English World dictionary

  • Garlic — For other uses, see Garlic (disambiguation). Garlic Allium sativum, known as garlic, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793. Scientific classification …   Wikipedia

  • garlic — garlicked, garlicky, adj. /gahr lik/, n. 1. a hardy plant, Allium sativum, of the amaryllis family whose strongly, pungent bulb is used in cookery and medicine. 2. any of various other plants of the genus Allium. 3. the bulb of such a plant,… …   Universalium

  • garlic — n. 1) a clove of garlic 2) a whiff of garlic * * * [ gɑːlɪk] a clove of garlic a whiff of garlic …   Combinatory dictionary

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